"Twenty-three sugar melons stick, twenty-four sweeping the house..." This folk song vividly shows the past and the past. Today is a good day, like a New Year, but there is no feeling of "being a Laba is a year", there is no "yearly taste." Stealing, this is because we lack the sense of ritual in the Chinese New Year. Needless to say, the ancients paid attention to red tape in the New Year, some were courteous and interesting, some were ignorant and absurd, some had already been cancelled, and some were still unaccustomed.
Twenty-three of the twelfth lunar month is a festival day, and the folks call it a small year. The folks believe that the Kitchen King is the god who specializes in diet and chores. It is said that every year on the 23rd of the twelfth lunar month, the king of the stove will go to heaven to report the merits of each family to the Jade Emperor. Because of the custom of "the man does not worship the moon, the woman does not worship the stove" in the folk, this day everyone must be worshipped by the man of the house. After dinner, the man put a scented candle on the stove, for some fruits and stove sugar, and sent the stove to the heavens, and put a couplet on the left and right sides of the portrait on the left and right sides. Wait until the New Year's Eve and then add a scented candle to pick up the stove king.
Year of the Qing Dynasty for the picture Qian Songyan / painting
The twelfth lunar month is the day of dust sweeping Folklore, the gods have been in the sky since this day, regardless of human affairs. After the festival was held, every household was swept away. The north called "sweeping the house" and the south called "dust". The north and south of the river are full of joy and joy to promote hygiene and cleanliness to welcome the new spring.
The twelfth lunar month is New Year's Eve. According to "Lv's Spring and Autumn, Jidongji", the ancients used the method of drumming to expel the "Ghosts of the Plague" on the day before the New Year. This is the origin of the "New Year's Eve" festival. However, the earliest mention of the name "New Year's Eve" is the "Taste of the Wind" written by the Western Jin Dynasty. On this day, each family posted a door (or door god), posted window grilles, attached blessings, posted new year pictures, firecrackers, and reunion dinner. Parents should give their families a year of money. After the reunion dinner, there are many kinds of tricks such as picking up stoves, trampolines, offering rice, drawing rice bran, resigning, and observing the ages. The so-called sacred age, the Song Dynasty has this custom. This night, the family sat together next to the brazier, burning a large charcoal group in the pot, and the name was a joyful group; or singing, or talking and laughing, straight to the dawn, this is the so-called defending the old. In the middle of the night, set off firecrackers, ushered in the new year.
The first day of the first month is the Spring Festival, the ancient name of New Year's Day, commonly known as the New Year. Open the door early, first put the three sounds of firecrackers, called the opening of the door, it is said that the firecrackers can scare off the plague. However, there are all kinds of jealousy on this day. Avoid sweeping the floor, avoiding drowning, avoiding arson, avoiding needlework, avoiding knife cuts, avoiding shit, avoiding soup, and avoiding unlucky words. Then, burn the incense sticks, worship the heavens and the earth, worship the ancestors. The whole family must wear new clothes and new shoes and socks, and they will be renewed. The men and women will then bow to the parents and then go to the family and friends to congratulate them. The elders must give the younger generations a year of money. On this day, I eat noodles, round rice, sugar tea and cloud cake, which symbolizes longevity, reunion, roundness and high festival. According to the Jin Dong Dongxun, "Calling Customs" records: "The first day of the month is a chicken, the second day is a dog, the third day is a pig, the fourth day is a sheep, the fourth day is a sheep, the fifth day is a cow, the sixth day is a horse, and the seventh day is a human. On the door, the seven days were posted on the account." Ancient China paid special attention to chickens and called it "the poem of Wude." According to "Han Shi Wai Chuan", it has a crown on the head, it is Wende; there is a distance behind the foot, it is Wude; the enemy before the fight, is the brave; there is food to call the same kind, is Rende; watch the night without losing When the day dawned, it was Shun Tak. Because of "chicken" and "ji", folks regard chicken as a mascot. On the first day of the opening year, folks cut chickens with red paper as window grilles, and set this day as "chicken day." On this day, the people have a mantra: "A New Year's Day, open the door."
The first day of the first month is the dog day. Folklore, this day is the day when the son-in-law made a dog. On this day, the Han nationality has married daughters and husbands and children returning to their hometown for the New Year. When the daughter returns to her family, she must have a large bag of biscuits and candy, which will be distributed to the neighbors by her mother. Although the gift is thin, it reflects the daughter’s feelings for the folks. It is really a matter of graciousness.
The third day of the first month is the pig day. This day is also a small year, also known as the Tianqing Festival. In the first year of Dazhong Xiangfu (1008), due to the descendance of the Tianshu book, the Song Zhenzong was ordered, and the third day of the first month of the month was the Tianqing Festival. Officials waited for five days. Later, it was called the Xiaonian dynasty, not sweeping the ground, not arson, not drowning, the same as the old age.
The fourth day of the first month is the sheep day. This day is the day when Chinese folks welcome God. "Sanyang (Yang) Kaitai" is a symbol of good fortune, and it is also a day to welcome the kitchen god back to the people. On this day, the whole family eats together and eats. The so-called smashing is the hodgepodge of mixing the rest of the food for a few days, cleaning up the new year's goods; cleaning the room and collecting the garbage in one place, this is also the so-called "throwing poverty" of folklore. .
The fifth day of the first month is the cow day. Folklore, this day is the birthday of the God of Wealth. The god of wealth is the five-way god. The so-called five-way means that the east, the west, the north and the south, meaning to go out five ways, can get wealth. Shanghai has a custom of stealing the road in the old calendar year. On this day, people are vying for the benefit of the city, so they are first picked up in the fourth day, and the name is “grabbing the road”, also known as “accepting the god of wealth”. This day also called the five knots. The ancients believed that the taboos of the first to the fourth day could be broken on this day. According to "Yanjing Years of the Year", the first five days of the "breaking five", "breaking five" can not be based on raw rice, women do not get the door. On the sixth day of the sixth day, Wang Haogui and the eunuch were crowned and congratulated each other. The newly-married woman also returned to China on the same day, and the merchants gradually opened trade. The Qing dynasty banknotes also said that the fifth day of the first month of the month is a broken five, and women do not get the door.
The sixth day of the first month is the horse day. This day, it was called manure, and people really started working or doing business on this day. Since entering the first month, it has not been able to clean up until the fifth day of the fifth day. The feces in the toilets have accumulated, so I cleaned up the day and then worshipped the toilet gods and cleaned the dirty toilets on weekdays, so it was called
“fertilizer”. Jin Yun: "The next field is ready for spring farming, and the poor is sent out." This statement indicates that the farmers began to work in the field from this day and prepare for spring ploughing.
The seventh day of the first month is the day of the people. In ancient times, there was a custom of wearing "people win". People win is a kind of headgear. From the beginning of the Jin Dynasty, there was a ribbon-cutting flower, a ribbon-cutting person, or a gold foil for people to put on the screen and wear it on the hair. In addition, there is a custom of ascending poetry. After the Tang Dynasty, more attention was paid to this festival. On every day, the emperor gave the group of ministers a chance to win, and ascended the feast.
The eighth day of the first month is the valley day. The custom of Guri is to worship the tablets with the name of the grain, not to eat the cooked grains, and to embody the idea of attaching importance to agriculture and cherishing food.
The first day of the first month is the birthday of the day, commonly known as the Jade Emperor. Tiangong is the Jade Emperor, representing the supreme day.
The first tenth of the first month is the Stone Festival. This day is the birthday of Stone God. Stones and mills, mills, stone slabs and other stone tools are not allowed on this day, otherwise they will hurt the crops. On this day, it is also forbidden to open mountains and stone and build houses with stone houses, and there is a custom of offering incense to the stones and offering pancakes in the afternoon. In other places, the custom of raising the stone god: in the first nine nights, a crock can be frozen on a smooth stone. Ten girls or young men in the early tenth morning, carrying the crocks in turns. If the stone does not land at all, it indicates a good harvest for the new year; if the stone falls, it indicates that the year is not good.
On the first month of the eleventh, please visit Zigu. The earliest documentary of "Zigu" was Liu Jingshu's "Diyuan" of the Southern Song Dynasty. It was said that Zigu was a small family of people and was shackled by the original, and was killed in the toilet on the 15th day of the first lunar month. Seal her as the toilet god. However, the Chinese folk worshiping Zigu is not because she is the toilet god, but that the purple aunt represents the oppressed woman in the feudal society, and she is worshipped by women, and she is worshipped as a protector of the weak woman. This day is also the next day. The rest of the food for the celebration of the birthday of the first nine days, in addition to eating a day in the first ten, there are still a lot left, so the family does not have to spend any more, they use these remaining food to entertain the son-in-law and daughter.
The first month of the 12th is over the mouse festival. According to legend, the first month of the 12th is the day of the mouse wife, and some say that this day is the birthday of the mouse, so people create a variety of "programs" around the mouse - knocking on the corners, hiding scissors, collecting old shoes, Burning the mouse hole, pinching the mouse mouth, quarreling the mouse ears, chewing the mouse eye not only expressed the hatred of the people to the mouse, but also drove away the hard work of the father and the villagers for a year. From now on, people are ready to celebrate the Lantern Festival, buy lanterns and cover the light shed. There are nursery rhymes: "Eleven, twelve light sheds, thirteen people turn on the lights, fourteen lights are right, fifteen and a half months, sixteen people finish the lights."
On the first month of the thirteenth light. The upper lamp starts from the 13th of the first month, and the first month of the 18th is lit. The folks have the saying that "the lamp is on the round and the lamp is on the surface", and there are "13th and 14th gods watching the lights, fifteen or 16 people watching the lights, 17 The eighteen ghosts look at the lights. In many places, there are still customs of marrying women.
The first month of the 14th is the birthday of Linshui Niangniang. Folklore, Linshui Niang, surnamed Chen, also known as Shuntian Madonna, lived in the Tang Dynasty during the Dali period, and later became a god to save dystocia women. So the folks are enshrined. In fact, this is a protection god that women have shaped for themselves in an era of no status and underdevelopment. It is also a way for them to fear their hard work and inspire themselves. In addition to worshiping the water goddess, this day also has the custom of drinking bright soup, eating dregs and test lanterns.
The first month of the fifteenth is the most interesting festival. Because the Lantern Festival has the custom of lighting and coloring, it is also called the Lantern Festival. Lantern Festival lights, three nights in the Tang Dynasty, five nights in the Northern Song Dynasty, six nights in the Southern Song Dynasty, to the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang ordered the world's rich merchants to light up for ten nights. There are many kinds of lanterns, such as human gods, flowers, birds, insects, poultry and beasts. They can be made into bamboo, wood, wood, red silk, cloth, paper, etc. The palace hall, the palace lanterns and the gauze lamps hanging at the front of the door, some inlaid with gold inlaid jade, some decorated with colored spikes, and some inscribed poetry. Because the gauze lamp is in the shape of a drum ball, it is nailed into a tripod with three pieces of sapphire or bamboo stalks. It is hung up and separated by three feet. It can be suspended from the ground three feet, the three feet are closed, and the hand can be lifted high. Gauze lamps are more widely used than lanterns. Dragon lights, lion lights, lanterns, etc. There are also lanterns on the Lantern Festival. The so-called river lantern is a flower-shaped lantern that floats on the water. In the northeast of China, especially in Heilongjiang, the ice lamps made before the spring of Laha, have a fascinating taste. According to the "Heilongjiang Outer Discipline" records: "Shangyuan, five nights in the city, the village women come to watch the drama, the car sounds all night long. There are five or six feet of ice for the birthday star, the middle burning double torch, look like Crystal man."
After the Lantern Festival, the year is over.